Chris Simmonds has been working on ports of Android to the BeagleBone Black for several years, since he posted the first tutorial on running JellyBean 4.3.
Now all of that work has been consolidated into the Android4Beagle project. Android4Beagle aims to provide a vanilla Android build, based on AOSP. Currently, builds are available for KitKat, Lollipop and Marshmallow, with Nougat in the works.
At last, here is Android Lollipop for BeagleBone Black!
Once you have ported AOSP to your platform, an obvious next step is to install some apps: maybe Gmail or Angry Birds. Ideally, you would want Google Play Store so that you can select apps from the 100,000's available. But, there is a problem. Play Store, like most of the apps on Play Store, requires Google Mobile Services (GMS) to work. GMS extends the Android framework by adding the libraries, configuration files and applications required to support the extended Google APIs that most developers know simply as Google Services. Most of these components are in the system partition so either they have to be included as part of the base AOSP build or installed as root afterwards. There is also a licensing issue: the components that make up GMS and applications like Gmail, Google Maps and Google Now are proprietary to Google and require a license.
I have updated the internal eMMC flash and sdcard images for BeagleBone Black. Most changes are to make U-Boot work better with fastboot, especially to make it possible to enter fastboot without having to type "fastboot" at a U-Boot prompt and so avoid the need to have a serial cable. Also, I have increased the sizes of the system and userdata partitions so that you can install more apps. I am still using Android KitKat 4.4.4 and TI Linux 3.2 kernel with SGX accelerated graphics libraries.
Many Android bootloaders implement the fastboot protocol for loading and flashing images to internal memory (there is some background information about how Android boots and boot image formats in these slides: http://www.slideshare.net/chrissimmonds/android-bootslides20). Fastboot is a simple USB protocol using ASCII text strings for commands and responses. In recent versions of the AOSP you can find the specification in system/core/fastboot/fastboot_protocol.txt.
After a little bit of tweaking I have got my port of Android KitKat up and running on the BeagleBone Black. For some background on why I am doing this, read my previous post about Android on the BeagleBone Black
A little while ago I wrote Building Jelly Bean 4.3 AOSP for Beaglebone Black which describes how to install Android on a micro SD card and boot the BeagleBone from it. Then I did some research on integrating fastboot into U-Boot and wrote Android fastboot for BeagleBone Black. Now I am bringing the two together.
I did think about editing the first article, but I think it is cleaner to have a new tutoruial that works for the new use case.
In this article I describe how to install U-Boot with Android fastboot support on a BeagleBone Black, which means that you can install new Android images onto the internal eMMC memory over a USB cable using the normal “fastboot” command-line tool.
This blog post describes how to use vanilla AOSP Jelly Bean 4.3 source to build and run Android on the BeagleBone Black development board. All components are built from source (well, nearly all: the GPU drivers contain some binary blobs).